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Plantar Fasciitis

Causes;
Plantar fasciitis occurs when the thick band of tissue on the bottom of the foot is overstretched or overused. This can be painful and make walking more difficult. You are more likely to get plantar fasciitis  when long-distance running, especially running downhill or on uneven surfaces, from tight Achilles tendons (the tendon connecting the calf muscles to the heel), or from shoes with poor arch support or soft soles
Plantar fasciitis is one of the most common orthopedic complaints relating to the foot.,and is seen in both men and women, although more often in active men ages 40 - 70. 
Symptoms;
The most common symptoms are pain (dull or sharp) and stiffness in the bottom of the heel, tenderness on the bottom of the foot with an ache or burning feeling, while mild foot swelling and redness may also occur. The pain may develop slowly over time, or suddenly after intense activity and is usually worse in the morning when taking your first steps, after standing or sitting for a while or when climbing stairs 
Treatment;
The most common steps to relieve pain include taking Acetaminophen(Tylenol) or Ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin) to reduce pain and inflammation, applying ice to the painful area, at least twice a day for 10 - 15 minutes, more often in the first couple of days, heel and foot stretching exercises, wearing a night splint while sleeping to stretch the foot, wearing a heel cup or felt pads in the heel area, resting as much as possible, and wearing shoes with good support and cushions
If these treatments do not work, your health care provider may recommend foot surgery 
Outcomes;
Nonsurgical treatments almost always improve the pain. Most patients feel better in 2 to 9 months. 
Prevention;
Making sure your ankle, Achilles tendon, and calf muscles are flexible can help prevent plantar fasciitis.

Further Reading:  Athletes Treating Athletes